Installing flexible solar panels on our bimini

It’s been over a month since our “big yellow umbilical chord” has been out of it’s locker and used to attach us to shore power. Instead, we now rely on our new solar panels to keep our house batteries topped up. The difference it’s made to our cruising life has been substantial: no more searching for a working power socket when we arrive in a harbour, and no more running the engine (or generator) in order to enjoy a cool beer on a sunny afternoon.

Quite apart from the convenience of it, we’re now saving money by not paying to plug in to shore power, or for diesel to run the generator.

This is how our panels look on a particularly good day at anchor:

Although there’s nothing new about using solar power on a boat, the use of flexible panels on a bimini seems to be less well documented, so I thought I’d write about the choices we made and the approach we took in case it is of use to others.

Assessing our power requirements

Typically, the advice for estimating your power requirements involves creating a spreadsheet which lists all devices on board, their power consumption, and the time they are used for in a 24hr period. From this you can determine a theoretical number of watts (or amp hours) that you will need to generate to meet their needs.

To me, this advice sounds flawed. Can you reliably tell me how many minutes your 7 amp fridge runs in a 24hr period for example? Does your autopilot consume the same power when sailing in rough rather than calm seas? Clearly not.

Instead of adopting the suggested approach, I simply spoke with owners of similar boats which already had solar panels and determined how satisfied they were with them. The general line was “more is better”, but once over 200W most of the people I spoke with felt that they wouldn’t want to be without it.  Given these numbers, we measured the space available and decided to use as much of it as possible. This resulted in us buying 4 x 100W panels (400W in total).

Siting the panels

We don’t have an arch at the back of our boat, and didn’t want to incur the cost (both financially and aesthetically) of having one built and fitted. As we always sail with our bimini up, a bimini mounted solution seemed like a more sensible option for us. A downside of mounting the panels on the bimini rather than an arch would be the increased shading from the ship’s rigging.

Mitigating power loss from shading

Solar panels don’t like shade. Shading a single cell can cause the current running through the whole panel (and hence that panel’s power output) to drop significantly. Furthermore, this current ‘bottleneck’ will limit the current running through any other panels connected in series, affecting the output of the entire array.

To avoid the losses described above, the panels can be wired in parallel. The downside of this approach is that the current increases as more panels are added resulting in power lost as heat, and subsequently more bulky cables are required.

There are many resources on the net explaining the advantages between wiring panels in series or parallel, and to save regurgitating it all, I’ve summarised the key pros and cons:

  • Series, output current remains low and voltage increases as more panels are added:
    • CON: Shading a single panel reduces power produced by all panels.
    • PRO: As current remains low, smaller cable diameters can be used.
    • PRO: Modern MPPT controllers can convert the high voltage back to a usable charge voltage and current.
  • Parallel, voltage remains the same, but current increases as more panels are added:
    • PRO: Shading a single panel will not affect the output of other panels in the array.
    • CON: As currents are high, thicker cables are required to carry same power.

Rather than opting for either of the above schemes when wiring our panels, I came up with a hybrid design that aimed to strike a balance between the efficiency of a series installation, without incurring big losses when the panels would invariably suffer from shading.

My reasoning was that any significant shade from the boom or the mast would fall on either the port or starboard side of the boat, but not both sides at the same time, and in such cases it was important to retain the maximum available output from the unshaded panels.

In the diagram you can see that the port and starboard side pairs of panels are wired in series, and that these each have their own MPPT charge regulator. The regulators (aka controllers) are wired separately (i.e. in parallel) to the house batteries. Note: if you are planing a similar installation, that you must find controllers that can work together in parallel.

This design seems to work well and I’m pleased with the results. When one side of the boat is in shade, the opposite side generates the bulk of the power. Then, as the sun moves, and the shadows go from one side to the other, the previously shaded array becomes more active.

Attaching the panels to the bimini

We used the services of Massimo, the local ‘canvas guy’, to attach the panels to the bimini and he did a first class job. The long sides of the panels are zipped and Velcro’d in place and the short sides are attached with Velcro only. The highest wind we’ve been in so far was just over 30kts and these fixings worked perfectly.

He also stitched cable bags between the panels that we can coil the cables into to keep things tidy.

You can see from the above shot that the boom is fairly close to the bimini. This means that it’s shadow is only cast over the panels when the sun is fairly low. For most of the day, we charge well from both the port and starboard arrays.

What did it cost?

Our choice of equipment has been influenced by us not wanting to install an arch. Flexible panels are more expensive than rigid ones but the gap is closing. If money’s no object and you elect to purchase a well marketed flexible ‘marine’ panel (like Solbian for example) then be prepared to shell out about £700 for a 100W panel. I sourced our panels from a reputable UK dealer for a little over £200 each. The controllers were about £150 each. With shipping to Italy from the UK, the total cost of materials was around £1200. The canvas guy charged us about €400 for the modifications to the bimini.

Finally

If you have any questions or relevant experiences then please get in touch in the comments section below.

 

 

 

 

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16 thoughts on “Installing flexible solar panels on our bimini

  1. Thank you very much for this informative article. I am in the process of building nearly the same system and plan to incorporate your hybrid approach. Great idea!! I am a little curious about your inverter (assuming you are using one) and some typical day usage.

    • Hi Bob,

      Yes we have a 2.5kw inverter. It’s mainly used to keep our laptops and other gadgets charged, and for using the toaster for breakfast.

      Steve.

  2. Hi Steve, love the hammock, did you buy it locally or in the UK?
    Your trip around Ibiza and Formentera looked great. We are based in Denia on the Spanish mainland and try to make the trip across to the islands at least once a year. All the best, John McKelvie SY Cristal.

    • Hi John,

      We bought the hammock back from a holiday in Brazil years ago, so not a local find unfortunately.

      Steve.

  3. Very Helpful article , thanks for sharing.

    Can you explain how you attached the zip and Velcro to the flexi panel ? Did you physically stitch it to the panel ? It appears possible with the right machine.

    In hind sight, after this installation, would you do anything differently now ?

    Sharing your experience is appreciated.

    • Hi Ian,

      The velcro and zips were indeed sewn on to the panels using a heavy duty sewing machine. We used a local guy to do this as our on board machine would not have been strong enough for the job.

      Regarding what we’d have done differently, there’s not a lot to tell. We’re really happy with our setup. In fact we met a couple on another boat that had had the same idea of twin arrays to reduce the problems of shading and they were pleased with theirs too.

      Cheers, Steve.

      • Many thanks for taking time to reply Steve.

        I am also in agreement with a Port – Stbd separate PV arrays, certainly has the best potential for producing the most from the various shade scenarios, especially whilst underway.

        I enjoy reading your adventures, thanks again.

        Fair winds !

  4. Hi Steve,
    We are considering exactly the same system. We were told that although flexible the panels would need to be supported on a firm surface. Did you have the same recommendation ? or does this only apply to semi rigid panels? Thanks for posting and explaining this system.
    best regards
    Steve

    • Hi Steve.

      I think that flexible panels can be mounted on a firm surface, and will curve to fit it. However, with a bimini you want to avoid any of the supporting bars as this will make a pressure point that the panel might flex over and crack. We’ve had these on for a full summer in Greece with some quite intense winds and have had no problems at all. I was carful to avoid placing them across any part of the bimini frame.

      I hope this helps.

      Steve.

  5. I have a question for you. I going to be doing the same as you but parallel I know I’m going to need a larger wire can I just connect it to my starter my starter has a big wire all the way to the batteries and from the panels will only be a 8ft run to the starter. Also how are your panels holding up I heard that these flexible panels delaminate and lose the power is that true? Thanks

    • Hi David,

      I’ve heard of installations which use starter motor cables, but I’m not sure what effect this might have when starting your engine on a sunny day. I decided not to do it this way, and the design I came up with meant I didn’t need to run so many hefty cables. Be sure to check the cable length and gauge is suitable for the maximum current you’d expect to put on them.

      I’ve seen no delamination on the panels we have. They’re made from a high grade material though, and I know there are cheaper ones out there.

      Best of luck with your installation.

  6. Hi Steve,

    Thank you very much for this very useful article. We are considering copying your system on our new boat, but with 6 panels instead of 4 as the bimini is large enough (SO54DS). Question; are you still happy with the quality of your panels and other parts of the kit? Is there something you would have done differently? Please advice.

    All the best,

    Mike

    • Hi Mikael.

      We’re very happy with the quality, but they’ve only been on there one season so time will tell. We get plenty of amps from them, but more is always better. If you’re putting more panels, it’s a good idea to make them all the same size, as different size panels can affect one another’s output depending on how you wire them up.

      I can’t think of anything that we’d suggest to do differently. As mentioned in the blog, make sure the controllers you use can work together at the same time; cheaper ones might see the voltage increase from the other charger controller charging and wrongly think the batteries are fully charged. Good luck with your installation.

      Steve.

  7. Hi Steve,

    I will order six 100W panels of the same type as yours from your supplier. They seem to be very helpful and have everything required for the installation. I’ll let you know how it goes.

    All the best,

    Mike

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